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Op-Amp as Active Filters

Operational Amplifier


Analog filters are designed to process analog signals, while digital filters process analog signals using digital techniques. Depending on the type of elements used in their construction, filters may be classified as passive or active. Elements used in passive filters are resistors, capacitors and inductors. Active filters, on the other hand, employ transistors or op-amp in addition to the resistors and capacitors. The type of element used dictates the operating frequency range of the filter.
Advantages
  • Gain and Frequency Adjustment Flexibility : Since the op-amp is capable of providing a gain, the input signal is not attenuated as it is a passive filter is easier to tune or adjust.
  • NO LOADING PROBLEM : Because of the high input resistance and low output resistance and low output resistance of the op-amp, the active filter does not cause loading of the source or load.
  • COST : Typically, active filters are more economical than passive filters. This is because of the variety of cheaper op-amps and the absence of inductors.

Active filters are most extensively used in the field of communications and signal processing, they are employed in one form or another in almost all sophisticated electronic systems. Radio, television, telephone, radar, space satellites and equipment are but a few systems that employ active filters.
The most commonly used filters are these :
  •  Low pass filter
  •  High pass filter
  •  Band pass filter
  •  Band reject filter
  •  All pass filter




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